Paradoxes in School Educational Policies and Practices: Equity in Chaos


  • Raj Kumar Gandharba Voluntary Service Overseas (VSO), Kathmandu, Nepal
  • Ram Gaire National Campaign for Education Nepal, Kathmandu, Nepal



Equity, Paradoxes, School Education Policies, Socialist Theory


This paper explores the paradoxes inherent within the intentions of Nepal’s public education policies and their actual implementation in local communities. It looks specifically at Nepal’s Constitutional Right to equitable quality education for socio-economically disadvantaged children. It highlights paradoxes in four major areas: 1) free and compulsory education, 2) equity and inclusion, 3) localizing education policies, and 4) the use of language in education, in the federal context of Nepal. To analyse school education policies and documents, we used participatory methods to generate data under the interpretive paradigm. More specifically, we held FGDs and interviews with women, Dalits, people with disability, indigenous groups, local governments, parents, teachers and students. The results show a number of significant paradoxes between the educational policies and the lived experiences of those in the local communities. The education policies deviate from the spirit of the Constitution and implementation is unsuccessful in delivering equitable education for all. A policy on paper does not guarantee equitable quality education and there are a number of questions that the government needs to consider to achieve the equity agenda.




How to Cite

Gandharba, R. K. ., & Gaire, R. (2022). Paradoxes in School Educational Policies and Practices: Equity in Chaos. Journal of Education and Research, 11(2), 53-73.



Original Articles