Citation and References

Normally in-text citation follows the author/date format. To cite a specific part of a source, indicate the page, chapter, figure, table, or equation at the appropriate point in the text. Always give page numbers for direct quotations. The general rules of in-text citations are as follows:

1 author (Luitle, 2009) or (Luitel, 2009, p. 25)
2 authors (Pant & Dhakal, 2004, pp. 24-48)
3/5 authors (Gautam, Basnet, Chaudhari, Tamang, & Tharu, 2017) second time cite: (Gautam et al., 2017)
6+ authors (Dahal et al., 2017)
Chapter (Dahal, 2016, chapter 2)
No author (Shortened Title, 2015) when it refers to a book;
No author ("Shortened Title", 2015) when it refers to a paper or book chapter
Organization as author (Kathmandu University [KU], 2016) Next cite: (KU, 2017)
In press (Shrestha, in press)
Personal communication (These are not included in References) (S. Upretee, personal communication, July 4, 2017)
Multiple (Dahal, 2015; Luitel, 2014; Pant, 2017)
No date (Shrestha, n.d.)
Two authors with the same last name (Sharma, T. N., 2013) (Sharma, A., 2017)
Multiple works by the same author, same year (Luitel, 2016a) (Luitel, 2016b)
Multiple works by the same author, same citation (Luitel, 2014, 2016)

References is the listing of all citations made in the text of the paper. At the end of your main text, on a new page, type References, centered, and list all citations in alphabetical order. No materials should be included in the list that are not cited in the text.

A book by a single author

Acharya, M. R. (2002). Nepal culture shift! Reinventing culture in the Himalayan kingdom. New Delhi, India: Adroit Publishers.

A book by two or more authors

Bongartz, H., & Dahal, D. R. (1996). Development studies: Self-help organizations, NGOs and civil society. Kathmandu, Nepal: Nepal Foundation for Advanced Studies.

An edited book

Bhattachan, K. B., & Mishra, C. (Eds.). (1997). Developmental practices in Nepal. Kathmandu, Nepal: Central Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Tribhuvan University.

A single chapter/paper in an edited book

Dahal, K. R., & Paudyal, B. R. (1998). Legal perspective of decentralization in Nepal. In G. B. Thapa (Ed.), Promoting participatory democracy in Nepal: An assessment of local self-government (pp. 43-57). Kathmandu, Nepal: Political Science Association of Nepal.

Corporate author

Department of Education. (2004). School level educational statistics of Nepal: Flash report I 2004. Kathmandu, Nepal: Author.

An article from a print journal or magazine

Koirala-Azad, S. (2008). Unravelling our realities: Nepali students as researchers and activists. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 28(3), 251-263. doi:10.1080/02188790802270245

An article from an online source

Onta, P. (2000). Nepal education: Finding a ray of hope. Retrieved on 19 January 2020 from

An unpublished thesis/dissertation

Gnawali, L. (2001). Investigating teacher practices: A proposal for teacher development of secondary school teachers of English in Nepal (Unpublished master dissertation). University of Exeter, Devon, England.

Non-English book

Gautam, B., Adhikari, J., & Basnet, P. (Eds.). (2004). Nepalma garibiko bahas [Poverty debates in Nepal]. Kathmandu, Nepal: Martin Chautari.

Translated book

Bourdieu, P., & Passeron, J. C. (1990). Reproduction in education, society and culture (2nd ed.) (R. Nice, Trans.). London, England: Sage. (Original work published 1970)

In text: (Bourdieu & Passeron, 1970/1990).

Encyclopedia article

Bergman, P. G. (1993). Relativity. In The new encyclopedia Britannica (Vol. 26, pp. 501- 508). Chicago, IL: Encyclopedia Britannica.

Multiple authors (up to seven)

Festinger, L., Cramer, C. J., Riecken, H., Boyd, E. C., Cohen, E. G., Gill, T. G., & Schachter, S. (1956). When prophecy fails. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.

Eight or more authors

Roeder, K., Howard, J., Fulton, L., Lochhead, M., Craig, K., Peterson, R., ... Boyd, E. C. (1967). Nerve cells and insect behavior. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Magazine article

Sherchan, R., & Sherchan, B. (2002, 30 May-14 June). Gaun-gaunmai banna thalyo mineral water [Mineral water now is produced in villages]. Himal, p. 21.

Newspaper Article

Prashrit, M. N. (2002, July 12). Bhanubhaktako sirjana ra rashtriya ekikaran [The creation of Bhanubhakta and national unification]. Kantipur, p. 5.